What is dengue
Dengue is known as a viral infection that usually spreads through female mosquitos of different species.
Mostly “Aedes aegypti” mosquito species is notorious for contributing most to the prevalence of dengue virus or dengue fever.
A person's body can take 2-7 days to recover from the dengue fever caused by the dengue virus, which mosquitoes transmit.
In minor cases, dengue fever can turn into a more severe condition like “dengue hemorrhagic fever,” which can cause significant danger to health by lowering body blood pressure, with inner bleeding, blood plasma leakage, low platelets, or in dengue shock syndrome condition in which body blood pressure can drop to a deficient level.
In such conditions, the fatality risks usually increase much to a worrying level.
[su_quote]Early medical help or clinical treatment can significantly lower the fatality risks (below 1 percent)[/su_quote]
Dengue virus that causes dengue fever or related consequences belongs to the “Flaviviridae Family” of viruses group.
Four types of viruses got transmitted by mosquitos and made people suffer from dengue.
Here are the four types of virus that cause dengue fever:
According to research, almost half of the human population lives under the danger of these types of dengue-causing viruses.
These viruses are transmitted to humans by mosquitos, especially from the “Aedes aegypti” species.
Areas where dengue prevail
Experts say 4 billion people are living in risky dengue environments.
Urban and semi-urban areas are mostly the habitat of dengue-causing mosquitos.
Unplanned rapid construction of human colonies in problematic areas or without making the habitat suitable for human needs is one of the main reasons for dengue prevalence in the human population.
According to World Health Organization(WHO), before 1970, very few countries were affected by the dengue virus.
But as the traveling services become more accessible and travel around the world become easy, the dengue virus cases and dengue fever prevalence increased.
Now the dengue has become endemic, and more than 100 countries are suffering from it.
People of different countries like America, Europe, South Asia, Africa are mostly facing problems because f the dengue virus.
[su_quote]In 2016 just in the region of America, 2.38 million cases of the dengue virus were reported[/su_quote]
Not just central screen countries but developing countries like Sudan, Nepal, Maldives, Srilanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, India, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam have also suffered a lot because of the dengue virus.
Although dengue cases have reduced in developed countries because of the authorities' excellent measurement, but experts still say the danger of dengue may not be eliminated entirely even with the entire forceful attempts.
[su_quote]Cases of dengue virus are still on the rise in developing and poor counties because of the few resources and most petite measurements for reducing dengue-causing mosquitos and the environment[/su_quote]
Dengue virus Transmission
Female mosquito of species “Aedes aegypti” plays the leading role in transmitting the dengue virus in humans.
Other species of mosquitos “Aedes” group are also responsible for dengue virus prevalence in humans, but their contribution is minimal compared to the “Aedes aegypti” species of mosquito.
Scientists have discovered the three ways through which dengue gets transmitted from one person to another.
In all of these, mosquitos are get involved in transmitting the dengue virus.
Here are three known ways through which the dengue virus expand its prevalence in the human population:
Dengue transmission from mosquito to human
The primary way the dengue virus is transmitted into the human body is via mosquito bites.
The female Mosquito of the Aedes aegypti group is the leading player that causes dengue fever in people.
Whenever the mosquito bites the infected person, then the virus reaches inside the mosquito's gut.
With time the dengue virus flourishes to the other parts of the mosquito body like in salivary glands.
With saliva, the virus gets transmitted to the human body whenever the DENV virus-infected mosquito bite.
Usually, the dengue virus spends some time in the mosquito body, which gets transferred to another host body.
Experts say the virus can take 8 to 12 days before transmitting to a human body.
Also, a specific temperature like 25-28°C helps the virus to get strong to transmit and affect the bitten person successfully.
[su_quote]Environment or surrounding area temperature can influence the time that dengue virus takes in mosquito body to get transmitted to a human body[/su_quote]
Dengue transmission from human to mosquito
Unlike coronavirus, the dengue virus does not prevail or transmit from a human to another.
This type of virus is transmitted only because of mosquitos.
Dengue can't use the human body as a host to get transmitted to other human bodies. Still, this virus can infect a mosquito if it gets a bite from the dengue virus-infected person(human).
After the bite, in just 2 days, the mosquito can get infected by the virus and can become eligible to prevail or transmit the dengue virus to healthy people.
After getting infected by the dengue virus, the infected female mosquito can transmit the virus to unlimited people in its life span.
Dengue transmission in pregnancy
Mosquitos are the primary vectors that cause dengue fever in people.
But some researched data say an infected human body can transfer the virus to other humans in a specific situation like during the pregnancy.
Researchers have found that a dengue virus can get transferred to the baby's body from the infected mother's body.
That is why pregnancy while suffering from dengue fever can increase the risks of health issues for babies like unhealthy level low body weight, premature birth, and fetal consequences can increase in such risky situations.
To reduce dengue-related risks during pregnancy, following the preventive measurement becomes crucial to deal with the dangerous consequences.
Here are some preventive steps that can help:
- Always use a mosquito net and other mosquito repellent products to keep these insects away from your body.
- Eat well, especially iron, protein-rich foods can help you much against such a virus or fever.
- Never skip any meal, not just against the virus but in pregnancy period healthy and needed foods provide needed energy to reduce the difficulties and risks that might appear with an unhealthy and low diet routine.
- Also, anti-dengue mosquito spray in your house or belonging areas can terminate some colonies of mosquitos that can cause transmission.
- Never store clean water openly in your house.
Normal Dengue Symptoms
Dengue virus severity can differ from person to person.
Usually, symptoms appear after 12 to 15 days of a mosquito bite.
When a mosquito bites the person, it flushes the stream of the virus into the bitten human body and usually causes viremia and fever.
Viremia is a medical term used to represent the body stage in which the bloodstream gets packed with the virus.
In most cases, people recover from the fever after 2 to 7 days, but viremia or virus in the body can stay for 12 days.
Here are the main symptoms of the dengue virus that can appear to deteriorate the infected person's health.
Usually, these symptoms can appear as painful and may need emergency medical help some times:
- High Fever
- Severe Headache
- Eyes pain
- Muscles pain
- Joint pain
- Swollen glands
High fever for several days is the main symptom of the dengue virus.
Such type of virus fever is called “dengue fever,” which can be very painful in most cases.
Most patients feel pain because of fever as 104°F fever for 2 to 7 days, which is typical in dengue infection, can severely damage the infected person's health and body endurance.
With anti-fever medicines, the intensity of dengue fever can reduce in most patients, but when meds lose their effects, the body temperature can rise again.
[su_quote]Body temperature can rise abnormally, and the infected person may feel a highly painful fever for 2 to 7 days[/su_quote]
After 3 to 7 days of symptoms onset, the critical or danger phase starts.
In this phase, the fever drops below 100°F, and the warning signs of severe dengue complications can appear.
People who face the severe complications or risks explained below may need crucial and proper medical attention to recover.
Headache is a prevalent health condition where people face pain, especially on their face or head area.
This issue can also appear along with various diseases or illnesses.
Headache can be treated with medication and stress management(stress also plays a significant role in headaches).
A patient infected with the dengue virus can face severe headaches.
Headache intensity can be severe in normal dengue fever.
Still, it can be mild in severe dengue fever-like during dengue hemorrhagic fever, which is the proper form of severe dengue fever that can cause abnormal bleeding and abnormally low blood pressure.
In such a situation, fatality risks due to the dengue virus can rise.
The infected patient can also feel mild to severe pain in the back of the eyes. Especially while moving the eyes, pain can trigger.
While having dengue, very few people give proper attention to the eyes-related symptoms which trigger due to d-virus.
Medical Expert believes that this fever can cause severe visual disturbance in some cases, and blindness can occur due to the high severity of the disease.
That is why it is highly recommended to get medical help if someone faces visual problems while having a dengue fever or virus.
Pain in the muscles can also trigger because of d-infection.
Pain in the body's back muscles and limbs can cause a movement-related disturbance, and the infected person may feel problems while standing up.
Along with muscles, pain in the joints can also get triggered due to dengue fever.
Pain in the body's joints and muscles may cause trouble during the fever and can increase the intensity of pain caused by the dengue infection.
Swollen glands usually trigger because of various viral infections such as dengue fever, glandular fever, cold, ear, throat, or tonsillitis infections.
This issue can go away as the fever symptoms reduce, and in some infections, it can take 2 weeks to recover from swollen glands.
Vomiting is also the primary symptom of viral infection like dengue.
Especially after eating a rigid diet, vomiting symptoms can appear.
That is why doctors recommend dengue-infected patients to eat a diet that can be easily digested.
[su_quote]Iron and protein-rich diets should be mandatory and eaten in good quantity to fight such viral disease[/su_quote]
Researchers have advice the physician to take proper care of a patient who had vomited 2 times or more in a day within the 72 hours of dengue fever onset.
Such type of persistent vomit can create a high adverse effect on the infected person.
Skin problems like swollen, red, pain, and irritation symptoms can also appear as dengue symptoms.
Rash symptoms like red, pain, and itchy skin may cause issues and be called medical issues.
This condition can also appear due to allergies and substance abuse.
Severe Dengue Symptoms
After 3 to 7 days, the body temperature can reduce below the 100°F.
During this stage, the possibility of severe symptoms like more intense fever hemorrhagic fever can trigger.
In such a situation, highly intense and dangerous symptoms can appear.
Here are some severe dengue symptoms that, in fact, seldom appear in most people:
- Excruciating abdominal pain
- Fast breathing
- Persistent vomiting or vomit with blood
- Gums bleeding
- Tiredness and fatigue
- Restlessness feeling
Dengue is caused by the Flaviviridae family group of viruses that first infect the mosquito and transmit to humans.
The female mosquito of the “Aedes aegypti” species is the most responsible vector for transmitting the dengue virus.
This type of mosquito species is also notorious is transmitting other viral infections from person to person like chikungunya, yellow fever, and zika virus prevail because of such mosquito species.
Some other species of the “Aedes” group also cause the dengue virus, but their prevalence activity for dengue infection is deficient compared to the “Aedes aegypti” species of mosquitos.
Once the virus reaches the mosquito body, it can use the infected mosquito to infect people as long as the infected mosquito stays alive.
Although the dengue infection seldom causes fatalities, it is considered a dangerous viral infection that can affect a large number of people's life.
Due to its high painful symptoms, it can cause significant trouble-causing symptoms and consequences.
Dengue usually causes various symptoms with several health issues.
Every year almost 400 million people get infected by dengue, and 100 million get seriously ill.
In those 100 million, almost 40000 people lose their life because of viral dengue infection.
As dengue can be caused by 4 types of viruses(DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, DENV-4), that is why a person can be get infected by dengue infection almost 4 times in the life span.
Expert says getting infected by this virus a second time can raise numerous risks of severe dengue infection, complications, and health consequences.
Here are some health risks that this viral infection can cause:
- Body organs damage
- Highly internal bleeding
- Dangerous blood pressure level drop
- Fatality or death
- Premature childbirth
- Other pregnancy issues are abnormal body weight and fetal distress risks for the baby.
There is no cure and specific treatment for dengue viral infection and related fever. Doctors can recommend anti-fever and pain killer medication for relief.
Physicians mainly prescribe acetaminophen and Paracetamol to infected people.
In dengue, fever experts advise not to take NSAIDs(non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) like ibuprofen and aspirin.
Such medicines can produce thinner blood, which is not suitable for dengue infection, with a high probability of bleeding.
Hemorrhage refers to bleeding which intensity can be increased with thinner blood and may cause a significantly destructive impact on the infected person's health in the dengue-like situation.
There is a vaccine named Dengvaxia that is available and approved by WHO for public use to treat and relieve dengue-infected patients.
Although World Health Organization has called this vaccine safe and effective, it is not recommended for every dengue suffering patient.
Expert only recommends those people to use this vaccine who have a history of dengue virus.
Usually, a blood test is performed to find the previous infection from any of the four dengue infection-causing viruses.
Using the Dengvaxia vaccine for people with no history of dengue fever can cause dangerous health-related results.
In many cases, severe dengue complications, risks, and emergency medical hospitalization incidents were reported using this vaccine for first-time infected patients.
Prevention measurements against dengue are not so hard but manageable.
The main problem is that it can be challenging to implement and follow the preventive measures for a long time.
Eliminating mosquito-friendly places and spaces can sufficiently reduce the human transmission of the dengue virus.
Authorities in various countries are working hard to eliminate mosquito colonies, but they face problems because of people's behavior.
As mosquitos that transmit dengue live and lay eggs in clean water, that is why their habitats usually lie near human-populated areas.
[su_quote]Even some experts say a little water in the jug or glass can help such specific mosquitos grow and develop[/su_quote]
In many areas, authorities have found the habitat of “Aedes aegypti” species mosquitos inside the people's houses.
That is why in areas where these viral infection cases are high, authorities are taking special, strict steps like spraying in the houses, strict check and balance against water storage, and steps to increase the self-awareness in people against dengue are also taken to reduce the impact of this viral infection on the human population.
There are many prevention tips and information available on various platforms. Here in the below, the best effective preventive measurement against dengue fever are explained:
Eliminate mosquito habitat
The first preventive method you can take is eliminating the habitat of mosquitos. Mosquitos play a crucial role in causing dengue fever.
That is why decisive steps against the main issue causing factor can be an excellent and needed step against the dengue infection and its prevalence in the human population.
Here is how you can reduce the habitat of mosquitos:
- Spray the mosquito friendly areas
- Remove the unneeded things and waste material from your house or where you mostly spend time.
- Remove those things which can hold water like in rainy season some places and things can hold freshwater which can become the egg-laying place or colony of mosquitos.
- Never store the water openly or cover it adequately.
- Close the water containers tightly.
- Avoid living near the freshwater area or don't sleep near the open water places where it can't be possible to cover the freshwater.
- Check the household things which can hold water. Remove them or cover them adequately to reduce the possible risks of viral infection.
- Use mosquito nets while sleeping.
- Get rid of water, especially after washing your things like car, house floor, mat, etc.
- Keep the bathtub empty.
- Empty the pool in the time of inactivity
- Purify your house with anti-mosquito spray
- Also, spray in the drainage and waste affluent areas.
- Avoid sleeping in open areas especially stop sleeping on the house roof when the infection cases are observed rising.
- Wear complete cloth that covers your whole body, mainly legs, arms, and belly area
Use self-protection products
The second most effective measure you can take is mosquito repellent products such as closing the house with sealed windows, using nets, mosquito repellent liquid, insect killer sprays, anti-mosquito coils, fragrance, and vaporizers can be beneficial against the mosquitos.
A fast fan and Air conditioner room can also save you from getting bitten by mosquitos.
The third thing you can do is increase awareness against dengue fever.
Many people do not know the proper and authentic method against this viral infection.
That is why giving information and telling unaware people the reality of the dengue virus can help a lot to deal with the prevalence of the virus.
When most people know the preventive method, dealing with dengue prevalence can become more accessible and practical.
The fourth measurement you can take is alerting the authorities about the outbreak of the dengue virus.
Even one case of dengue can cause a significant impact.
You may need to know that an infected mosquito can cause dengue infection for an unlimited time during its life. So eliminating such trouble-causing flying insects is essential.
When you inform the authorities about the dengue, they will take proper preventive measurements like spraying the areas to eliminate the mosquito colonies can work very fine to reduce the further impact of the viral infection.
Eat healthy and more.
As there is no specific treatment of dengue, only your body's immunity and capability can help you recover fast with fewer dire consequences.
So, in that case, only proper foods that raise immunity can help a lot.
Eating vitamins, minerals, iron, protein, fiber, and energy-rich foods can make you more immunized and solid against the dengue virus.
Wear full covered clothes
It may be hard to stop the mosquito's bite, but the bite percentage can be lowered significantly just by wearing full-body cloth.
It is observed that people who wear short clothes suffer more from mosquito-related illnesses.
Wearing a cloth covering most body parts can make it hard for tiny insects to bite for your blood.
Fewer risks of getting bitten by mosquitos mean fewer risks to get suffering from the related viral infection.
Wear whole cloth for yourself and make your loved ones choose full-body clothes as a preventive measurement against the dengue-causing mosquitos.
Tips for recovering fast
Here are some tips that can be useful while revering from this viral fever:
- Eat iron-rich foods
- Eat protein-rich foods
- Drink sufficient water or stay hydrated
- Eat fruits and vegetables too.
- Use prescribed medication
- Follow tips and instructions given by the physician.
- Get prescribed medical treatment.
- Use mosquito net to prevent the further prevalence of the virus.
- Never stop eating
- Take rest as much as possible.
High fever may stop you from eating the required food. In such a condition, you may need to eat that food you like or eat an energy-rich diet in small quantity, and then you can take prescribed anti-fever medicine.
Medicine may reduce your fever, and your interest and hunger for food may increase because of the improvement due to meds in the dengue-induced fever.
How many times infection happen
Dengue fever or infection is caused by the dengue virus named "Denv".
According to CDC there are four types of Denv serotypes and getting infected from each of them can make a person infected from the virus.
Expert says after recovery infected person can become immune to the virus that causes the dengue but the other three viruses can still cause the infection in the person later in life.
It means an individual can get dengue fever 4 times in the life span.
There are four types of dengue virus DENV1, DENV2, DENV3, DENV4. All of these can trigger the infection in any part of the person's life.
Remember getting the dengue the second time can make its symptoms severe or worse that can make your health condition worse.
In short fatality, risks increase after getting an infection the second time or afterward.
Dengue is a hazardous viral infection that is caused by a specific species of mosquito.
It is a trouble-causing viral illness that is affecting almost half of the world's human population.
Dealing with such endemic infection, which has created a great disturbance in more than 100 countries, can become a massive target for health officials.
To control the dengue virus, great acts from the authorities and the ordinary people are needed.
With proper preventive measures and awareness, dengue cases and their prevalence levels can be shrunk to a satisfying stage.
- Dengue - https://www.cdc.gov/dengue/index.html
- Dengue and severe Dengue - https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/dengue-and-severe-dengue
- The eye in dengue fever, a rarely appreciated aspect of dengue expanded syndrome: a case report - https://jmedicalcasereports.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13256-019-2189-2
- Criteria of “persistent vomiting” in the WHO 2009 warning signs for dengue case classification - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4940707/